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1950s smallpox vaccine passes dilution test

first_img The existence of Aventis Pasteur’s stockpile of millions of doses of frozen smallpox vaccine was publicly disclosed in March 2002. The company then offered to turn the vaccine over to the federal government, which was preparing a smallpox vaccination program for the military and some healthcare workers at the time. The JAMA report says the stockpile contains about 85 million doses. Talbot TR, Stapleton JT, Brady R, et al. Vaccination success rate and reaction profile with diluted and undiluted smallpox vaccine. JAMA 2004;292(10):1205-12 [Abstract] More than 99% of the vaccinees showed a vaccination “take,” defined as a vesicle or pustule at the site 6 to 11 days after vaccination, with no significant difference in take rates between the three dilution groups, the report says. All volunteers had induration and erythema at the inoculation site, but the areas affected were significantly smaller in women than in men. Before the disclosure of the Aventis stockpile, the nation’s supply of smallpox vaccine was only about 15 million doses (though studies have shown it can be diluted). However, the British vaccine maker Acambis has been under contract since 2001 to supply 209 million doses of a smallpox vaccine to the government. In view of the findings, the authors write, “The existing supply of approximately 85 million doses of APSV [Aventis Pasteur smallpox vaccine] can be expanded, leaving an ample stockpile of smallpox vaccine to protect the entire US population in the event widespread vaccination is imminently needed. With adequate supplies of vaccine for the population of the United States, the potential exists for sharing additional supplies with other countries as well.” Using vaccine made in 1956 and 1957, the recent study was a double-blind, randomized trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Volunteers recruited at Vanderbilt, Iowa, and Cincinnati were screened for contraindications and given the vaccine at full strength or in a 1:5 or 1:10 dilution. The volunteers, who had never had a smallpox shot, were then observed in person every 3 to 5 days for 2 weeks and again at 1 and 2 months after vaccination, and were interviewed by phone after 6 months. Blood serum samples were taken before vaccination and 28 and 56 days afterward. A trial of the vaccine in 340 young adults showed it was effective when diluted to one-fifth and one-tenth of full strength, according to the report by a team of 10 researchers from Vanderbilt University, the University of Iowa, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, and EMMES Corp. The lead author is Thomas R. Talbot, MD, MPH, of Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. In the 2 weeks after vaccination, 99.7% of the volunteers had pain or itching at or near the vaccination site. Systemic symptoms were also common: fatigue was reported by 79.1%, myalgia by 78.2%, headache by 75.0%, and fever by 21.5%. The frequency of these side effects was about the same in all three groups. A quarter of the vaccinees missed some activities because of reactions to the shot. The authors say the frequency of side effects, while not unexpected, seemed higher than that in a recent trial of lyophilized (powdered) smallpox vaccine. Sep 10, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – A test of smallpox vaccine made by Aventis Pasteur in the 1950s show it is still effective even when diluted, suggesting that the United States has more than enough vaccine for everyone, according to a report this week in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The researchers did not actively monitor the volunteers for cardiac symptoms, because the trial took place before myopericarditis emerged as a rare side effect in the US military smallpox vaccination program. However, four volunteers reported episodes of chest pain or tightness in the 2 weeks after vaccination, and one reported exercise-associated dyspnea and tachycardia. All of these symptoms resolved with rest or treatment with nonprescription drugs, the report says. Because of the number of smallpox vaccine trials coinciding with this one, serologic data for all the vaccinees were not available in time for the JAMA report. However, data were available for a subset of 109 volunteers from Vanderbilt University. By a month after vaccination, all except one of these vaccinees had developed a neutralizing antibody response. This response was significantly higher in the 1:5 dilution group than in the 1:10 group.last_img read more

Utilities: Grid lock

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Govt could afford to pay teachers an increase – Jagdeo

first_img– urges them to cut wasteful spending of public fundsIf Government cuts back on its exorbitant spending and end some of the corrupt contracts it currently has, then it would be able to pay increases to the country’s teachers’ without raising the current level of expenditure.This is the firm view expressed by Opposition Leader Bharrat Jagdeo who told media operatives on Thursday at his weekly press conference that it is in the interest of Guyana that a new multi-year contract for teachers’ be secured. He said this avoids the hassle of negotiations on an annual basis.“I believe that there is money to fund a lot of what the teachers have been asking for, without increasing overall expenditure in the budget,” he stated pointing firstly to a corrupt contract which costs the Government $170 million annually.He was referring to the controversial Sussex Street, Albouystown, Georgetown, house used as a drug bond which is rented from a campaign supporter of the People’s National Congress (PNC) for $14 million monthly.The Opposition Leader reasoned that that sum could cover the request by teachers to increase clothing allowances from $8000 to $21,000. The task force set up by President David Granger has only recommended $16,000.“So, I urge the President to address this matter urgently and I said to him, you have been stressing the importance of education and so now it is the time to address the teachers concern urgently,” he stated.Jagdeo, a former President, said that if the Government had committed to creating such a task force, then it must adhere to its recommendations or findings. He said he has had a look at the report from the task force which did not recommend all that the teachers wanted. However, the Guyana Teachers’ Union (GTU) is calling for these very recommendations to be implemented.“I thought the report is very reasonable, in terms of affordability. And the teachers themselves have said that. And I’ve seen from the Union that 40 per cent was their starting point. I’ve also heard double digits for one year and a single digit for the remaining period of the agreement,” he recalled.The Opposition Leader has debunked claims that the teachers and their union are acting unreasonable, stating that they have been waiting for three years to meet with Government. He therefore criticised Government for sensationalising the 40 per cent figure and not saying that teachers are prepared to accept lower.In providing a further break down of how the demands of the teachers could be met, Jagdeo said he has even taken a look at the budget estimates to come up with how spending could be curtailed to facilitate the request.In comparing seven items from the current expenditure column between 2014 and 2018, Jagdeo said there are enough monies that are being wasted that could be reduced and used to meet the demands.He pointed to the celebration of national and other events, where in 2014 $477 million, while in 2018 $911 million has been budgeted. For dietary (food) this was $3.6 billion and in 2018 it is now $5.2 billion. The other category (operating expenses) showed that it was at $1.8 billion in 2014 and in 2018 $2.6 billion.“If you add those three that’s $2.8 billion increase alone,” he pointed out.Further, for travel, in 2014 it was $1.4 billion and it is now $2.1 billion. This indicates a growth of $732 million per annum. As for vehicle spares and service, in 2014, $853 million was budgeted but in 2018 it has moved up to $1.34 billion. Other transport and travel was $874 million in 2014 which has now gone to $1.3 billion. Rental of buildings in 2014 was $795 million and now $1.39 billion. This totals $2.2 billion.“In these seven heads alone, we have increased expenditure of $5.1 billion. We could easily cut these and find money to pay the teachers wages and restore the one month allowance to the Discipline Forces, pay the debunching for the teachers, housing allowance, all of these things… just here,” he explained.He continued, “But worst of it all, this Government has the gall to go out and talk about teachers being greedy and they want duty-free and all of that… when they without working a single day, they took a 50 per cent increase for themselves and their salaries have gone to close to $1 million per month.They also have State vehicles and duty-free and go and lecture teachers.” Jagdeo said while he doesn’t agree with all the demands of the teachers, he feels they deserve to be treated respectfully.last_img read more

Trucks halt pursuit

first_imgCASTAIC – A transient from Lancaster led California Highway Patrol officers on a high-speed chase Tuesday on Santa Clarita surface streets for more than an hour before truckers trapped the suspect’s car between their rigs on Interstate 5. CHP officers tried to stop Steven Burns, 23, for an unsafe lane change at 5:17 a.m. Burns was driving a stolen 1993 Saturn from the Lancaster area on the wrong side of Sierra Highway, Officer Wendy Hahn said. Newhall officers picked up the pursuit at Davenport Road in Agua Dulce, following Burns through Santa Clarita along Sierra Highway, San Fernando Road, Soledad Canyon Road and back to Sierra Highway, where he led officers onto the southbound Antelope Valley Freeway and northbound I-5, the officer said. Burns entered a construction zone with two lanes closed for road work just north of the Highway 138. The other two lanes were occupied by trucks and as two changed lanes, Burns became stuck between two rigs and officers were able to apprehend him. It was not known if truckers were trying to help capture Burns. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWalnut’s Malik Khouzam voted Southern California Boys Athlete of the Week Hahn said Burns was on parole for a stolen vehicle conviction and was arrested on suspicion of possession of both a stolen vehicle and crystal methamphetamine. He was booked at the Santa Clarita sheriff’s station. Carol Rock, (661) 257-5252 carol.rock@dailynews.com 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more