The existence of Aventis Pasteur’s stockpile of millions of doses of frozen smallpox vaccine was publicly disclosed in March 2002. The company then offered to turn the vaccine over to the federal government, which was preparing a smallpox vaccination program for the military and some healthcare workers at the time. The JAMA report says the stockpile contains about 85 million doses. Talbot TR, Stapleton JT, Brady R, et al. Vaccination success rate and reaction profile with diluted and undiluted smallpox vaccine. JAMA 2004;292(10):1205-12 [Abstract] More than 99% of the vaccinees showed a vaccination “take,” defined as a vesicle or pustule at the site 6 to 11 days after vaccination, with no significant difference in take rates between the three dilution groups, the report says. All volunteers had induration and erythema at the inoculation site, but the areas affected were significantly smaller in women than in men. Before the disclosure of the Aventis stockpile, the nation’s supply of smallpox vaccine was only about 15 million doses (though studies have shown it can be diluted). However, the British vaccine maker Acambis has been under contract since 2001 to supply 209 million doses of a smallpox vaccine to the government. In view of the findings, the authors write, “The existing supply of approximately 85 million doses of APSV [Aventis Pasteur smallpox vaccine] can be expanded, leaving an ample stockpile of smallpox vaccine to protect the entire US population in the event widespread vaccination is imminently needed. With adequate supplies of vaccine for the population of the United States, the potential exists for sharing additional supplies with other countries as well.” Using vaccine made in 1956 and 1957, the recent study was a double-blind, randomized trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Volunteers recruited at Vanderbilt, Iowa, and Cincinnati were screened for contraindications and given the vaccine at full strength or in a 1:5 or 1:10 dilution. The volunteers, who had never had a smallpox shot, were then observed in person every 3 to 5 days for 2 weeks and again at 1 and 2 months after vaccination, and were interviewed by phone after 6 months. Blood serum samples were taken before vaccination and 28 and 56 days afterward. A trial of the vaccine in 340 young adults showed it was effective when diluted to one-fifth and one-tenth of full strength, according to the report by a team of 10 researchers from Vanderbilt University, the University of Iowa, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, and EMMES Corp. The lead author is Thomas R. Talbot, MD, MPH, of Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. In the 2 weeks after vaccination, 99.7% of the volunteers had pain or itching at or near the vaccination site. Systemic symptoms were also common: fatigue was reported by 79.1%, myalgia by 78.2%, headache by 75.0%, and fever by 21.5%. The frequency of these side effects was about the same in all three groups. A quarter of the vaccinees missed some activities because of reactions to the shot. The authors say the frequency of side effects, while not unexpected, seemed higher than that in a recent trial of lyophilized (powdered) smallpox vaccine. Sep 10, 2004 (CIDRAP News) A test of smallpox vaccine made by Aventis Pasteur in the 1950s show it is still effective even when diluted, suggesting that the United States has more than enough vaccine for everyone, according to a report this week in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The researchers did not actively monitor the volunteers for cardiac symptoms, because the trial took place before myopericarditis emerged as a rare side effect in the US military smallpox vaccination program. However, four volunteers reported episodes of chest pain or tightness in the 2 weeks after vaccination, and one reported exercise-associated dyspnea and tachycardia. All of these symptoms resolved with rest or treatment with nonprescription drugs, the report says. Because of the number of smallpox vaccine trials coinciding with this one, serologic data for all the vaccinees were not available in time for the JAMA report. However, data were available for a subset of 109 volunteers from Vanderbilt University. By a month after vaccination, all except one of these vaccinees had developed a neutralizing antibody response. This response was significantly higher in the 1:5 dilution group than in the 1:10 group.
Grealish has a big decision to make on his future (Picture: Getty Images)Former Liverpool midfielder Don Hutchison says Jack Grealish should snub Manchester United and move to Arsenal instead.The Aston Villa midfielder played a pivotal role in helping his boyhood club retain their Premier League status, but now faces a big decision on his next move.United are keen on bringing Grealish to Old Trafford, but Metro.co.uk understands that they are unwilling to meet Villa’s £75 million asking price.Arsenal have since expressed their interest in the English playmaker and Hutchison believes that given the competition in the Red Devils’ midfield, the 24-year-old would be better off joining the Gunners.AdvertisementAdvertisementADVERTISEMENT‘I think it’s all about timing,’ Hutchison told ESPN FC. ‘The form of Bruno Fernandes and Paul Pogba has probably swayed Ole to stick with those two, if Paul Pogba hangs around, so timing is probably not on Jack’s side to go somewhere like Man United. Advertisement Advertisement Grealish is on Solskjaer’s transfer wish list (Picture: Getty Images)‘I think he’d be a good signing for them, obviously, Liverpool as well. ‘I think Arsenal at this present time would be a very good move for him. ‘Having said that, it just depends on who else arsenal bring in. Because if they expect to bring in Jack Grealish for between £40-45m and expect Arsenal to get to the top four, it ain’t gonna happen. More: Manchester United FCRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starNew Manchester United signing Facundo Pellistri responds to Edinson Cavani praiseEx-Man Utd coach blasts Ed Woodward for two key transfer errors‘So, if Jack Grealish is a stepping stone in terms of they’re going to then attract better players in different positions I.e. centre-halves, then they have got a chance. ‘I think for Jack it will be a pretty good move because they’re a footballing side.’MORE: Arsenal’s FA Cup final won’t be Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang’s last game for the club, says Mikel ArtetaMORE: Cesc Fabregas explains why his Chelsea team were winners and Arsenal were notFollow Metro Sport across our social channels, on Facebook, Twitter and InstagramFor more stories like this, check our sport page Comment Jack Grealish urged to snub Manchester United transfer in favour of Arsenal by Don Hutchison Metro Sport ReporterFriday 31 Jul 2020 1:42 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link1.4kShares
LocalNews More fishermen needed in Dominica by: – July 25, 2011 Share 17 Views no discussions Share Share Sharing is caring! Tweet In photo: a school of fish. Photo credit: pixdaus.comThe Government of Dominica is said to be focusing on the development of the fisheries sector on the island, with the implementation of various fisheries cooperatives around the island however, the Fisheries Division is concerned with the number of active fishermen on the island.Chief Fisheries Officer, Mr Harold Guiste says there has been a decrease in the number of fishermen currently trawling Dominican waters since many of the ‘seasoned’ fishermen are now close to retirement.While addressing the closing ceremony for a children’s fishing clinic in Portsmouth last week, Mr Guiste echoed the need for ‘young fishermen to take up the trade and continue the legacy set by our forefathers’.The two-week program, which was organized by the Fisheries Division, allowed children ages 9 to 12 to learn fishing ethics, angling skills, marine biology, among other topics.The main sponsor of the program was a Swiss national living in Dominica, Ms. Reneta Siegenthler who contributed almost fifty percent of the funds.The National Drug Abuse Prevention Unit, University of Florida, Al Dive, Rodney Smith Anglers Association of Florida, Portsmouth Beach Hotel, The Youth Division, Garraway Enterprises, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Dive Dominica, were also sponsors of the program.Approximately twenty- five students participated in the programme.Dominica Vibes News